An example of ambiguity in a sentence is the chicken is ready to eat. There are two meanings, the first one is that the chicken is already cooked and people are going to eat that chicken, the other meaning is a chicken is going to eat. In an aspect of ambiguity, there are two kinds of ambiguity: structural (grammatical) and lexical ambiguity. Unfortunately, none of the currently prevailing structural accounts of sentence processing can provide satisfactory explanations for this dissociation. A ...The higher the amount of synonyms a word has, the higher the degree of ambiguity. Like other kinds of ambiguity, semantic ambiguities are often clarified by context or by prosody. One's comprehension of a sentence in which a semantically ambiguous word is used is strongly influenced by the general structure of the sentence.1. Subject-Verb Agreement: One of the fundamental rules of composition is ensuring that the subject and verb in a sentence agree in number. For example, if the subject is singular, the verb should also be singular, and if the subject is plural, the verb should be in its plural form. This agreement helps maintain the grammatical integrity of the ...Structural definition: Structural means relating to or affecting the structure of something. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examplesambiguity are distinguished, lexical and structural ambiguity. Lexical ambiguity, which is so common, indicates that the word itself has more than one meaning. The word ‘hard’, for example, can mean ‘not soft’ or ‘difficult’. Structural ambiguity, on the other hand, occurs when a phrase or a sentence has more than one Hint: this sentence suffers from syntactic ambiguity “College professors make millions of dollars a year.” Hint: this sentence suffers from grouping ambiguity “The Raider tackle threw a block at the Giants linebacker.” Hint: this sentence suffers from semantic ambiguity. IN GROUPS: Develop 2 examples of semantically ambiguous claims.In the context of global politics, a policy of deliberate ambiguity (also known as a policy of strategic ambiguity or strategic uncertainty) is the practice by a government or non-state actor of being deliberately ambiguous with regard to all or certain aspects of its operational or positional policies. The core motivations for adopting overtly ambiguous positions on a subject are typically a ...structural ambiguity that can affect the m eaning of words, phrases or . sentences. (Hudson, 200:313,314) ... phrase or sentence. Many examples are already mentioned in the . paper.The problem posed by deep structural ambiguity is that such utterances instantiate (at least) two completely different instances of S, i.e., two distinct sentences instead of one, in the same linear string of terminal elements. One “sentence” in the deep structurally ambiguous sentence illustrated above is paraphrased as “It is terrible ...Based on various findings from our lab, I advance a theory of structure building in speaking based on a formal grammatical theory. This model is able to capture various syntactic phenomena. It also makes novel counter-intuitive predictions about one of the most well-studied phenomena in sentence production: structural priming.Ambiguity is the quality or state of being ambiguous. When a sentence is ambiguous, it has two or more possible meanings. There are two types of ambiguity in a sentence : lexical ambiguity and structural ambiguity. Lexical ambiguity occurs when a sentence contains a word or words that has or have more than one meaning. For example, the …An example of surface-structure ambiguity is the sentence “the stout man's son played football at the field”. This sentence is structurally ambiguous because.Writing can be a complex task, especially when it comes to structuring your sentences effectively. Sentence diagrams are a powerful tool that can help you visualize sentence structure and identify grammatical errors.Ambiguity means when a term, statement, or resolution is not clearly defined, leaving room for several reasonable interpretations. Uncertainty is a typical characteristic of ambiguity. Consequently, it is a characteristic of any thought or statement whose intended meaning cannot be conclusively determined by a rule or method with infinite stages.Structural analysis is the way that parts of a word are interpreted to form the entire word. Structural analysis can help readers determine the way a word is pronounced and the way that it is being used in a sentence.17 Eyl 2005 ... ... example everybody always uses to illustrate lexical ambiguity ... The reason it is a structural ambiguity is that in the structure of the sentence ...Here's a Worksheet. Ambiguity is important to logic and to careful thinking more generally because if a sentence is ambiguous, it affects our ability to evaluate its truth-value. More specifically, if a sentence is ambiguous, then there are at least two distinct meanings that can be attributed to it, and these two meanings represent different ... Ambiguity that a rises when the words in a sentence can be grouped in different ways is called s yntactic, structural o r grammatical ambiguity (Sevida, 2015).Structural ambiguity can be resolved by rearranging the words or adding punctuation to clarify the intended meaning. In summary, lexical ambiguity is the multiple meanings of a word or phrase, while structural ambiguity is the uncertainty of meaning due to the syntax of a sentence. Both types of ambiguity can be confusing and lead to ...Sentences •Evidence of structure in sentences –Structural ambiguity •Black cab drivers went on strike yesterday –Black [cab drivers] went on strike. –[Black cab] drivers went on strike. •The boy and the girl’s uncle stayed to dinner. –[The boy and the girl]’s uncle stayed. –The boy and [the girl]’s uncle stayed. sentence. Of the two kinds of ambiguity, lexical and structural, the latter is the one which is explored further in this paper. Structural ambiguity occurs when a phrase or sentence has more than one underlying structure. The phrase can be disambiguated by putting it in a sentence with some sort of 1. I saw the man with the binoculars. Is the man using binoculars or being watched through binoculars? The ambiguity is resolved when more context is provided about the …Structural disambiguation is necessary whenever a sentence has more than one possible parse. There are many classes of structurally ambiguous sentence ...characterized by structural ambiguity. It is the aim of this article to bring together and to analyze some relevant examples of structural ambiguity in English morphology. Section 2 presents a brief overview of structurally ambiguous compounds. This topic has been addressed in the literature on several previous occasions. The parallel ques- Here are a few examples of "ambiguously" in action: The politician's statement was ambiguously worded, leaving room for various interpretations. She spoke ambiguously about her future plans, leaving her audience uncertain. The artist's abstract painting was intentionally created to be ambiguously meaningful.Are you struggling with sentence structure and grammar in the English language? Do you often find yourself wondering if your sentences are correctly constructed? If so, you’re not alone. Many individuals face challenges when it comes to wri...Nov 17, 2022 · The problem posed by deep structural ambiguity is that such utterances instantiate (at least) two completely different instances of S, i.e., two distinct sentences instead of one, in the same linear string of terminal elements. One “sentence” in the deep structurally ambiguous sentence illustrated above is paraphrased as “It is terrible ... Nov 16, 2020 · Structural ambiguity . Syntactic ambiguity, also called s tructural ambiguity or . grammatical ambiguity, occurs when a reader can draw . ... The 8 th sentence below i s an example . Dec 9, 2013 · A classic example of lexical ambiguity involves the word(s) bank. 1. I went to the bank. Sentence 1 is ambiguous because the word bank can mean either a type of financial institution or an area of land next to a river. Structural ambiguity results when an utterance might have more than one grammatical structure. 2. Flying planes can be dangerous. 17 Eyl 2005 ... ... example everybody always uses to illustrate lexical ambiguity ... The reason it is a structural ambiguity is that in the structure of the sentence ...How does structural ambiguity affect the interpretation of lexical relations in natural language? This paper presents a corpus-based approach to study this question, using the notion of mutual information and a large collection of parsed texts. The authors show how their method can reveal interesting patterns of lexical association and disambiguation in different syntactic contexts.Feb 17, 2021 · Each of these general examples of ambiguity can carry double meanings: Marcy got the bath ready for her daughter wearing a pink tutu. Was Marcy wearing the tutu? Or was her daughter? Well, I’ve certainly never tasted chicken cooked that way before! Was the chicken good or bad? Call me a taxi, please. One example of a global ambiguity is "The woman held the baby in the green blanket." In this example, the baby, incidentally wrapped in the green blanket, is being held by the woman, or the woman is using the green blanket as an instrument to hold the baby, or the woman is wrapped in the green blanket and holding the baby. Locally ambiguous Syntactic ambiguity, also called structural ambiguity, amphiboly or amphibology, is a situation where a sentence may be interpreted in more than one way due to ambiguous sentence structure. Syntactic ambiguity does not come from the range of meanings of single words, but from the relationship between the words and clauses of a sentence, and the ...In this article, we see how natural language sentences can be ambiguous because of their structure of sentential clauses and sentence-connectives.Figure 1. The two possible structural configurations for the am- biguous trimorphemic word unlockable. Page 2. AMBIGUOUS ...Examples of structural ambiguity. Here are a few examples of sentences that contain structural ambiguity: "I saw the man with the telescope." In this sentence, it is unclear whether "the man" and "with the telescope" are two separate phrases modifying each other, or whether "the man with the telescope" is a single phrase modifying "saw."principal types: lexical ambiguity, and syntactic or structural ambiguity. Lexical ambiguity potentially occurs whenever a word has more than one objective or dictionary meaning. The ambiguity is potential because it is only in certain contexts that more than one of the meanings may be possible. For example, the wordLexical Ambiguity can be classified into two types: Polysemy which refers to a word with more than one meaning, and Homonymy which involves words that are pronounced or spelled the same, or both, yet their meanings are not related to each other. Structural ambiguity occurs when the structure of a sentence causes multiple …structural or individual, however, most situations involve at least some ambiguity. Organizations designed and run by people inevitably will involve some degree of anarchy. The problem is that, while flawed, these organizations produce the goods and provide the services which allow us to get on with the business of living. They need to be ...Structural Ambiguity: Resulting from sentence structure. Example: “I saw the man with the telescope.” Lexical Ambiguity: Arising from the use of a word that has more than one meaning. Example: “bark” can refer to the sound a dog makes or the outer layer of a tree. Semantic Ambiguity: When a sentence contains an ambiguous word or phrase ... An ambiguity example displays something that may not be easily understood. Understand the concept definite with examples from life and titles from literature. An equivocalness …Dec 8, 2021 · Structural or syntactic ambiguity occurs when ambiguity is produced by the grammar of a sentence, rather than the words themselves. A vague word is one where the meaning is imprecise enough to ... Anna Dix, S.E., Principal, Liftech Consultants Inc.—Example 6 Ms. Dix is a registered structural engineer in California and has 14 years of experience in the design and analysis of various steel and concrete structures. Her focus is on ship-to-shore cranes and other structures that reside next to, in, or on top of the water, such as heavy ...Answer and Explanation: Structural ambiguity arises when a sentence has more than one meaning due to the way words are arranged in that sentence. For example, the sentence Sara caught the butterfly by the tree is structurally ambiguous because it has two meanings: 1) Sara caught the butterfly while she was standing by the tree.Apr 10, 2016 · Add a comment. -2. One example of lexico-semantic ambiguity: Michael didn't win the lottery. Michael didn't win because he spent money but didn't buy a winning ticket, or because he didn't play and had no chance of winning, or because he went to work, allowing us to infer that he didn't win the lottery. Share. For example, in a question sentence like, “ What are the kids eating for lunch? ”, we claim that the word what is related to the verb eating in the same way that eggs and eating are related in the declarative sentence, “ The kids are eating eggs for lunch .” ambiguity are distinguished, lexical and structural ambiguity. Lexical ambiguity, which is so common, indicates that the word itself has more than one meaning. The word ‘hard’, for example, can mean ‘not soft’ or ‘difficult’. Structural ambiguity, on the other hand, occurs when a phrase or a sentence has more than one An ambiguity example displays something that may not be easily understood. Understand the concept definite with examples from life and titles from literature. An equivocalness …An ambiguity example displays something that may not be easily understood. Understand the concept definite with examples from life and titles from literature. An equivocalness example shows something that may not be easily implicit.structural or individual, however, most situations involve at least some ambiguity. Organizations designed and run by people inevitably will involve some degree of anarchy. The problem is that, while flawed, these organizations produce the goods and provide the services which allow us to get on with the business of living. They need to be ...Sociologists define social change as modifications of a society’s culture, institutions, and values. There are two main theories about social change: structural functionalism and conflict theory. 1. Structural functionalism. From a structural-functionalist perspective, social change tends to occur slowly, if at all.I. The following sentence is structurally ambiguous, analyze the two differentsentence structures (SVOCA) to show both possible meanings. 1. The girl scratched the boy with …For example, in financial economics, Easley and O'Hara (2009) show that ambiguity aversion can explain low participation in the stock market despite the potentially high benefits. In medical-decision problems, Berger, Bleichrodt, and Eeckhoudt (2013) find that ambiguity about the diagnosis or the treatment of a medical condition affects ...Exercise Sheet Ambiguity Manfred Sailer 24.4.2013 Task 1: The following words have more than one meaning. 1. Provide definitions for two of the meanings of the words. 2. For each meaning, give a clear example sentence. a. run b. bank c. must d. bright e. old Lexical ambiguity: We speak of lexical ambiguity if and only if For the sequence of words in (1) there are two alternative organizations of the words, each of which delivers a different meaning: because the ambiguity is based on two different structures for the same sequence of words this is called a structural ambiguity. Syntactic structure For the sequence of words in (1) there are two alternative organizations of the words, each of which delivers a different meaning: because the ambiguity is based on two different structures for the same sequence of words this is called a structural ambiguity. Syntactic structureYou can talk about ambiguity, you can describe ambiguity, you can even try to prevent it. Ambiguous is an adjective, derived from the noun, describing something. Like, “that text is ambiguous”. What is a structural ambiguity? Structural ambiguity occurs when a phrase or sentence has more than one underlying structure.Syntactic ambiguity presents two or more possible meanings within a sentence or phrase. This is also known as structural ambiguity. When dealing with syntactic ambiguity, it’s helpful to use your context clues to uncover the true meaning of the sentence or phrase. For example: “I shot an elephant in my pajamas” (Groucho Marx).large number of examples). A sub-category of structural ambiguity is that involving scope, which often stems from the perceived divergent arrangements of the elements in the sentence. The example (4) old men and women (Chomsky 2002:87) is unclear as to whether it is intended to mean [old men] and women or old [men and women]. For the sequence of words in (1) there are two alternative organizations of the words, each of which delivers a different meaning: because the ambiguity is based on two different structures for the same sequence of words this is called a structural ambiguity. Syntactic structureJunko Furuta was a Japanese schoolgirl, brutally raped and killed by four young men, who received shockingly light sentences. How did they get off so easily? Advertisement Japan and the United States are two of the only industrialized democ...Sentences •Evidence of structure in sentences –Structural ambiguity •Black cab drivers went on strike yesterday –Black [cab drivers] went on strike. –[Black cab] drivers went on strike. •The boy and the girl’s uncle stayed to dinner. –[The boy and the girl]’s uncle stayed. –The boy and [the girl]’s uncle stayed. Syntactic ambiguity, also known as structural ambiguity, is when a sentence can be interpreted in two (or more) ways due to the structure of the sentence. Syntactic ambiguity in writing is undesirable as it can confuse your readers. Examples of syntactic ambiguity Here are some examples of syntactic ambiguity: The duck is ready for dinner.This is known as structural ambiguity or syntactic ambiguity. Structural ambiguity can sometimes lead to some funny interpretations. This often happens in news headlines, where function words get omitted. For example, in December 2017, several news outlets reported, “Lindsay Lohan bitten by snake on holiday in Thailand”, which led a few ...Syntactic ambiguity presents two or more possible meanings within a sentence or phrase. This is also known as structural ambiguity. When dealing with syntactic ambiguity, it’s helpful to use your context clues to uncover the true meaning of the sentence or phrase. For example: “I shot an elephant in my pajamas” (Groucho Marx).Semantic Ambiguity: Scope and Reference Structural Ambiguity Types of Ambiguity Structural Ambiguity In both formal and natural languages, meaning is derived (in part) from the structure underlying its strings (Weeks 8 & 9). Parsers are procedures for recovering this structure, as a basis for computing meaning and/or mapping to another form ...Lexical Ambiguity can be classified into two types: Polysemy which refers to a word with more than one meaning, and Homonymy which involves words that are pronounced or spelled the same, or both, yet their meanings are not related to each other. Structural ambiguity occurs when the structure of a sentence causes multiple …Structural ambiguity can be resolved by rearranging the words or adding punctuation to clarify the intended meaning. In summary, lexical ambiguity is the multiple meanings of a word or phrase, while structural ambiguity is the uncertainty of meaning due to the syntax of a sentence. Both types of ambiguity can be confusing and lead to ...An example of surface-structure ambiguity is the sentence “the stout man's son played football at the field”. This sentence is structurally ambiguous because.tion of deep structure to meaning, and the corresponding restriction on trans-formations that they not affect semantic properties, but give up the formal characteristics of deep structures that they be generated by a context-free phrase-structure grammar and/or that they be the insertion point for lexical material (i.e. generative semantics).In this example sentence, the modification construction (students of the speaker) alone cannot produce ambiguity, and neither can the coordination construction.Back in the 1990s, one-in-five people who suffered a heart attack died. Then things changed. In the US in the 1990s, having a heart attack was basically a death sentence for some 20% of the people who suffered one. The country’s medical com...Syntactic ambiguity, also known as structural ambiguity, is when a sentence can be interpreted in two (or more) ways due to the structure of the sentence. Syntactic ambiguity in writing is undesirable as it can confuse your readers. Examples of syntactic ambiguity Here are some examples of syntactic ambiguity: The duck is ready for dinner.Mar 3, 2021 · 3.Structural ambiguity: It has two distinct underlying interpretations that have to be represented differently in deep structure An example of structural ambiguity: 1- Annie had an umbrella and she bumped into a man with it 2- I Shot an elephant in my pajamas Ambiguous sentences are a bit more focused than just being unclear. In its two different types, ambiguity offers two or more than two possible plausible interpretations of a passage or a single word. The word ‘ambiguity’ actually originates from Latin, meaning “wandering about.”. There are two types of ambiguity in speech and writing.In a legal context however, how something is to be interpreted can be life-changing, so an informed understanding of types of linguistic meaning and possible sources of ambiguity is critical. One interesting legal case from 1960 (Frigaliment Importing Co. v. B. N. S. Int’l Sales Corp.) concerned a dispute over the meaning of the word chicken ...For example, Jackendoff claimed that in both versions of the ambiguous sentence ... ambiguous sentences and to determine the focus or presuppositional structure.Ambiguity in Compounding. Just as words created via derivational morphology can be ambiguous, so can compounds. In fact, in English it’s often easier to create new examples of structural ambiguity with compounds than it is with derivational morphology, because any string of noun roots can hypothetically combine into a compound in multiple ways. Elementary examples. Scope and syntactic domains. Summary. Some first ambiguous sentences. Types of ambiguities – III. Example (2) illustrates a structural ...Structural ambiguity . Syntactic ambiguity, also called s tructural ambiguity or . grammatical ambiguity, occurs when a reader can draw . ... The 8 th sentence below i s an example .As a logical fallacy, ambiguity occurs when linguistic ambiguity causes an argument to appear cogent when it is not. This can happen when an ambiguous word or phrase occurs more than once in an argument and has different meanings in two or more occurrences. There are two main types of ambiguity: Lexical: A word or short phrase that is ambiguous. An example of using both “been” and “being” in a sentence is: “I have been to Paris five times, and I am being considered for the position of ambassador.” “Being” is the present participle of the verb “be,” while “been” is the past particip...15 Haz 2014 ... There are numerous examples of lexical ambiguity. A clear-cut one is ... The structural analysis shows that the sentence may be interpreted ...Jul 17, 2014 · Structural Ambiguity • Annie bumped into a man with an umbrella. • Small boys and girls are playing hide and seek. Explanation can show in the first sentence two ideas: i. Annie had an umbrella and she bumped into a man. ii. Annie bumped into a man when he happened to be carrying an umbrella. Explanation can show in the first sentence two ... structural or individual, however, most situations involve at least some ambiguity. Organizations designed and run by people inevitably will involve some degree of anarchy. The problem is that, while flawed, these organizations produce the goods and provide the services which allow us to get on with the business of living. They need to be ...ambiguity translate: अनिश्चितता, अस्पष्टता, संदिग्धता. Learn more in the Cambridge English-Hindi Dictionary.resolution of SAs. The 8th sentence below is an example of surface structural ambiguity. The ambiguity in this sentence lies in whether the time adverb of Tuesday should be attached to the main phrase or the clause following it. In other words, where to place the time adverb of Tuesday is not obvious: The teacher made the Structural analysis is the way that parts of a word are interpreted to form the entire word. Structural analysis can help readers determine the way a word is pronounced and the way that it is being used in a sentence.Hint: this sentence suffers from syntactic ambiguity “College professors make millions of dollars a year.” Hint: this sentence suffers from grouping ambiguity “The Raider tackle threw a block at the Giants linebacker.” Hint: this sentence suffers from semantic ambiguity. IN GROUPS: Develop 2 examples of semantically ambiguous claims. I. Explain the two different meanings associated with each of the following three sentences. II. Draw tree structures that explain the ambiguity ...When we talked about morphology, we saw a first example of structural ambiguity in Section 5.9: cases where the same string of morphemes can have more than one structure, with each structure corresponding to a different. interpretation. The same thing is found in syntax. Consider the following example:One example of a global ambiguity is "The woman held the baby in the green blanket." In this example, the baby, incidentally wrapped in the green blanket, is being held by the woman, or the woman is using the green blanket as an instrument to hold the baby, or the woman is wrapped in the green blanket and holding the baby. Locally ambiguousfactors of ambiguity, by using Macmillan Dictionary to find the definition of each word in lexical ambiguity and labeled and bracketed sentences/phrases ...grammatical ambiguity. Structural or syntactic ambiguity, occurs when a phrase, clause or sentence can be given two or more different interpretations as a result of the arrangement of words or lexical units. It is useful to recognize that syntactic ambiguity does not result from just the ordering of the words in the ambiguous structure. Types of ambiguity Structural ambiguity Lexical ambiguity Structural ambiguity: Structural ambiguity refers to the situation in which a sentence may have different meanings because the …It is interesting to note that sornetimes sentences are both lexically and structurally ambiguous, as can be seen in the examples: I saw him walking by the bank ...I. Explain the two different meanings associated with each of the following three sentences. II. Draw tree structures that explain the ambiguity ...structurally ambiguous sentence The chicken is ready to eat , which can be used ei-ther to describe a hungry chicken or a broiled chicken . It is not always clear when we have a case of structural ambiguity. Consider, for example, the elliptical sen-tence John knows a richer man than Trump . It has two meanings – that John knowsrepresented in the surface structure of the sentences; ambiguity at the surface structure level involves the possibility ofmore than one grouping ofadjacent words. For example, Interested faculty and students should not miss this talk, is ambiguous at the surface structure level. If the word "interested" is grouped with the phrase pathology masters programlowes wood slabprimerica insurance agent salaryjalen wilson heightk state vs wichita statelogic model examples social workgale in context environmental studiesespn2 hoststraveling technician salaryreal jeeter juice packagingwhen does mu playgreat plains farmreacher 123 movieslitter robot blue light blinking but not fullku basketball schedule ticketsshooting in johnstown pa last nightwhere do persimmons originateshawcrest mobile homes for salescofield park howellwnit kuwhere can you study abroadku short courses1997 ford f150 fuse box layoutcraigs list fishing boatsbig 12 bracket 2023 printablecentral and rockard up yeat lyricsscore of the kansas gamedid kansas jayhawks win todayatt my prepaycraigslist farm and garden madisonaoh meaningjeff gentry invistasyracuse basketball roster 2006polaris ranger carburetorwhere to find multi shot bows botwkanas 7nick taylor allstateoklahoma v oklahoma state scorelithology symbols2013 acura tl radio codecycle trader oregoncostco store director salaryu of k basketball tonighttransfer function to differential equationmadarame second will seedwhere does bill self livecovers com mlb scoresn dealkylation mechanismdental practice for sale kansas citycomminication planhow to get families involved in the classroomgimkit alternativesmark cochioloout sellstillwater regional softball bracketsmooth sumac vs staghorn sumaccodi heuermoneypak number generator onlinemaurice hall wichita ksjoann fabric myrtle beachspring break ku 2023committee of financeku basketball rosterssherwin commercial storequeefing tiktok meaningfree tb test cvswhat is redox in chemistryku v texasathletic training facilitiesapla formatrecolectarmarketing in sportsresolving conflict definitionwhen does k state basketball playati fundamentals practice test b 2019rti and special educationcommon soul gem skyrim idlarry brown teams coachedantecedents behavior consequencesjayhawk bballku duke scorecheapest gas prices in salem oregonz mathssinglepoint sign inchevy sandy sansingbelle microlocs vs sisterlocksque son las pupusashow to connect printer to computer windows 7ku basketnallbakugou x deku fanfictionwhat is mitch lightfoot doing nowunitedhealthcare drug list 2023micromedexxriley spencertransexual massage los angeleshearne tx weatherksu baseball scorefan cutoutchampions classic recordsproblemas de lahomewood hilton near meriverbed watch collectibleskonza prairie biological stationindoor tennis courts kansas citylectureship salaryclint bushbglad bainbasketball tournament in wichita ks2013 f 150 fuse diagrambackpage bridgeportsakeholderstlc treatmentmoon rise time nycextension cords vs power stripswho won the kansas game todayrune factory 5 cooking contestcoast guard fightdepartment architecturecrz yoga joggersdissertation abstractsespn hoops